Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires – October 2008

Under the invitation of the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) and the InterAcademy Council (IAC), the Interamerican Network of Academies of Sciences (IANAS), in partnership with the National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Argentina and the Argentinean Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation, organized the IANAS Workshop "Toward a Sustainable Energy Future", which was held at the headquarters of the Argentinean Center of Engineers, in Buenos Aires, on 30-31 October 2008.


The main objective of this workshop was to present to key stakeholders in Latin America and the Caribbean region the conclusions and recommendations of the IAC Report "Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future", to review the energy-related issues and challenges for the Americas, and discuss the strategies and mechanisms needed for regional implementation of the actions needed to effect a transition to a more sustainable way of life.


The workshop brought together 130 high-level experts from 15 different countries, covering North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean region. The rich mix of participants from academia, multilateral organizations, government, the private sector and non-governmental organizations allowed a particularly comprehensive discussion on the challenges of achieving a sustainable energy future for the Americas.

Agenda
IAC Energy Study


List of Participants

 

Argentina 
  
Abel Chialvo 
National University of La Plata ? College of Engineering 
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Abel González 
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 
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Adolfo Marajofsky 
National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Adrian Ramos 
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN, in Spanish) 
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Agueda Menvielle 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation 
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Alberto Acevedo 
National Institute of Agropecuary Technology ? Investigation Center on Natural Resources (INTA-CIRN, in Spanish) 
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Alberto Baruj 
National Council of Technical and Scientific Investigations (CONICET, in Spanish) 
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Alberto Berset 
National Institute of Industrial Technology ? Energy (INTI, in Spanish) 
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Alberto Rubén Etcheverry 
Argentina Energy Company (ENARSA, in Spanish) 
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Aldo Fabris 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation 
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Aldo Ferrer 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Alejandro Fros 
Inter-American Development Bank 
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Alejandro Jorge Arvia 
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN, in Spanish) 
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Ariel Gómez 
North Enterprise in charge of the Distribution f Energy ( EDEN , in Spanish) 
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Ariel Pérez 
HYCHICO 
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Ariel Hernán Troisi 
Nautical Hydrography Service 
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Arnaldo Visintín 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Arturo Bignoli 
National Academy of Engineering - Argentina 
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Carlos Bolcich 
Bariloche Foundation 
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Carlos Grinberg 
Central Bank of Argentina 
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Carlos Kirschbaum 
Department of Lighting, Light and Vision (UNT-CO, in Spanish) 
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Claudio Fontes Nunes 
Petrobrás Energy SA 
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Claudio Alejandro Estrada Gasca 
Energy Investigation Center ? Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM, in Spanish) 
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Daniel Andrés Santos 
Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (UCA, in Spanish) 
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Eduardo Bobillo 
Metrogas SA 
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Eduardo Charreau 
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN, in Spanish) 
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Eduardo Guerra 
IMPSA 
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Eduardo Quel 
Solids Investigation Center ? Conicet/ CITEFA 
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Eduardo Pedace 
National Academy of Engineering 
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Eduardo Fernando Amin 
National Technologic University - U.T.N.-TERRAPLEN S.R. 
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Ernesto Kirchuk 
Buenos Aires University (UBA, in Spanish) 
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Esteban Alberto Brignole 
Chemistry Engineering Plant (PLAPIQUI-UNS-CONICET, in Spanish) 
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Frederico d´Aloia 
DALBUZ SRL 
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Fernando Martín Lopardo 
Indeco Advisory 
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Florência Paoloni 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation 
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Gabriela Galante 
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN, in Spanish) 
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Gerardo Maioli 
TECNA 
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Graciela Lemoine 
Office of Governmental Affairs ? Ministry of Interior 
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Guillermo Pita 
Techint 
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Guillermo Estévez 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Guillermo H. Venturuzzi 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation 
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Gustavo Meyer 
National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Gustavo Orioli 
South National University 
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Gustavo Alejandro Vazquez 
Office of Environmental and Sustainable Development (SAYDS-ambiente Nación, in Spanish) 
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Hector Fasoli 
(Institution not available) 
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Hector Nordio 
Argentina Energy Company (ENARSA, in Spanish) 
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Hernán Peretti 
National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Horacio Corti 
National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Horacio Cristiani 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Hugo Bordón 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Hugo Alberto Palamidessi 
Moreno Group 
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Jaime Moragues 
MR Advisors 
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Jimena Sánchez 
Danone 
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Jorge de Zavaleta 
PBB Polisur SA/Dow Argentina 
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Jorge V. Crisci 
Museum of the La Plata 
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José Luis Aprea 
National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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José Luiz Rodríguez 
National University of San Juan 
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Juan Casavelos 
WWF 
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Juan Antonio Hilbert 
National Institute of Agropecuary Technology 
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Juan Ignácio Galimberti 
Normalization Institute (IRAM, in Spanish) 
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Juan Pablo Zagorodny 
Argentina Energy Company (ENARSA, in Spanish) 
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Juan Rubens Barea Pontoriero 
New Cuyo Group (Nuevo Cuyo) ? Argentina 
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Julio Durán 
Tandar National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Leonardo Asaff 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Leonardo Sobehart 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Leonardo Mariano Paz 
Chacra Magazine 
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Leopoldo Millán 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Lidia Seratti 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation 
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Liliana Maria Bertini 
Technological Institute of Buenos Aires (ITBA, in Spanish) 
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Lino Barañao 
Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation 
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Luis Bertenasco 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Luis Alberto Betti 
Siemens SA 
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Mariana Weissmann 
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN, in Spanish) 
- National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Marijan Pirsic 
todocountries.com 
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Marina Yesica Recalde 
National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigations (CONICET, in Spanish) ? South National University 
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Mario Calafell 
Pan American Energy LLC 
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Mario A. Wiegers 
EDESAC 
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Maximo Moreno 
Buenos Aires University ? College of Engineering 
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Miguel Laborde 
Buenos Aires University (UBA, in Spanish) 
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Norberto W Pazos 
Council of Professors of Civil Engineering 
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Norma Cadoppi 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Norma Sbarbati de Nudelman 
Buenos Aires University (UBA, in Spanish) - National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigations (CONICET, in Spanish) 
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Onil Abreu Tobar 
National Commission of Energy 
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Oscar Vignart 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Osvaldo Postiglioni 
Regulatory National Entity of Electricity (ENRE, in Spanish) 
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Pablo Fernández 
Airports Argentina 2000 
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Pablo Martínez 
National Commission of Atomic Energy 
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Patrícia López 
National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences (ANCEFN, in Spanish) 
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Pedro Mulás 
CETAP SA 
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René A. Dubois 
National Academy of Engineering 
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Ricardo José Caratti 
ENARGAS 
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Rubén Oscar Cabrio 
VDIA ( German Engineering Center ) 
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Salvador Gil 
ENARGAS 
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Sandra Del Aguila Rios 
National University of San Cristóbal of Humanga 
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Victor Flaker 
(Institution not available) 
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Walter Triaca 
Strategic Forum to National Development 
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Williams Valencia 
UIS 
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Brazil 
  
Antonio René Iturra 
Brazil Biofuels 
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Carlos H. de Brito Cruz 
Research Support Foundation of the State of São Paulo (FAPESP, in Portuguese) 
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Fernanda Santos Mota 
SYGMA 
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Hernan Chaimovich 
IANAS Co-Chair / Brazilian Academy of Sciences 
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Isaias Macedo 
Interdisciplinary Center of Energy Planning (NIPE, in Portuguese) ? UNICAMP (University of the State of Campinas) 
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José Goldemberg 
University of São Paulo 
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Marcos Cortesão Barnsley Scheuenstuhl 
IANAS / Brazilian Academy of Sciences 
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Canada 
  
Margaret McCuaig-Johnston 
Ministry of Natural Resources 
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Paul Dufour 
Ministry of Natural Resources 
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China 
  
Haihong Yang 
Association for Science and Technology 
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Qi Keqian 
Association for Science and Technology 
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Quangzhi Li 
Association for Science and Technology 
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Xing Meng 
Association for Science and Technology 
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Zhengxin Sun 
Association for Science and Technology 
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Colombia 

Aliriodelmar Fonseca Mejía 
Ministry of Mines and Energy 
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Edigson Perez Bedoya 
Institute of Planning and Promotion of Energy Solutions 
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Guatemala 
  
Ivan Azurdia 
Academy of Medical , Physical and Natural Sciences of Guatemala 
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Jamaica 
  
Anthony Clayton 
University of the West Indies - Mona Campus 
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Japan 
  
Xiaoping Wang (First name not available) 
World Bank 
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Malaysia 
  
Dato Lee (First Name not available) 
International Academy Council 
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Mexico 

David Nieva Gómez 
Institute of Electrical Investigations 
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Peru 

Manfred Horn 
National University of Engineering 
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Uruguay 
  
Gustavo Crespi 
International Development Research Center (IDRC) 
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USA 

John Boright 
US National Academy of Sciences 
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John Millhone 
Global Energy Metrics and Mosaic 
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Jonathan Coony 
World Bank 
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Ted Jassik 
United States Embassy in Argentina 
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Venezuela 
  
Benjamin Sharifker 
Simón Bolivar University and Academy of Physical , Mathematics and Natural Sciences 
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Roberto Callarotti 
Venezuelan Institute of Science investigations 
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Presentations

IANAS ENERGY WORKSHOP


OCTOBER 30 
Buenos Aires

 

Invited Lecture

    - José Goldemberg "Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future" - Click here for a short CV.

 

Roundtable 1 Basic Energy Needs of Low-Income Populations: Sustainable Solutions

    1. Anthony Clayton - Click here for a short CV.

    2. Eduardo Guerra - Click here for a short CV.

    3. Ivan Azurdia - Click here for a short CV.

    4. Xiaoping Wang - Click here for a short CV.

 

Roundtable 2 Energy Efficiency and Climate Change. Concerted Efforts to Improve Energy Efficiency and Reduce Carbon Intensity in the World Economy.

    1. Abel González - Click here for a short CV.

    2. Alejandro Fros - Click here for a short CV.

    3. Pedro Mulás - Click here for a short CV.

    4. Roberto Callarotti - Click here for a short CV.

 

Roundtable 3 Renewable Energies for Transportation and Electricity, and Energy StorageTechnologies

    1. David Nieva Gómez - Click here for a short CV.

    2. Isaías Macedo - Click here for a short CV.

    3. John Millhone - Click here for a short CV.

    4. Jorge Karacsonyi - Click here for a short CV.


Report

IANAS WORKSHOP ON ENERGY

Oct 30-31, 2008
Buenos Aires, Argentina
 

Report

On the invitation of the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP) and the InterAcademy Council (IAC), the Interamerican Network of Academies of Sciences (IANAS), in partnership with the National Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of Argentina and the Argentinean Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation, organized the IANAS Workshop ?Toward a Sustainable Energy Future?, which was held at the headquarters of the Argentinean Center of Engineers, in Buenos Aires, on 30-31 October 2008.

The main objectives of this workshop were to present to key stakeholders in Latin America and the Caribbean region the conclusions and recommendations of the IAC Report ?Lighting the Way: Toward a Sustainable Energy Future?, to review the energy-related issues and challenges for the Americas, and discuss the strategies and mechanisms needed for regional implementation of the actions needed to effect a transition to a more sustainable way of life.

The workshop brought together 130 high-level experts from 15 different countries, covering North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean region. The Special Advisor on Sustainable Energy to IAC Co-Chair, Dato Lee Yee-Cheong from Malaysia was also present. The rich mix of participants from academia, multilateral organizations, government, the private sector and non-governmental organizations allowed a particularly comprehensive discussion on the challenges of achieving a sustainable energy future for the Americas .

The world is already seeing a range of serious impacts on natural systems due to climate changes, and much more grave damage will occur unless there is a major decrease in the currently projected emissions of greenhouse gases. It is also true, however, that basic energy services are still unavailable to thirty percent of the world population, and that significantly more energy will be needed in future as the population increases. The challenge, therefore is to find a basis for more inclusive, equitable development that must at the same time be globally sustainable. These problems are compounded by the uneven geographical distribution of current energy resources, and now being exacerbated by the increase in the price of energy since 1999.

Global problems demand global solutions, but these must still be applied locally. The IAC ?Lightning the Way? Report raises challenges that have to be discussed; solutions must be found, adapted and implemented both regionally and locally.

This Report concludes that:

•  Science and Engineering provide critical guiding principles for economically viable and environmentally sustainable energy systems;

•  Building these energy systems will require an intense effort to build capacity, which will in turn require the participation of many diverse institutions and individuals;

•  This will be a long-term effort, and requires the urgent and simultaneous implementation of a number of key actions.

These conclusions were endorsed by the workshop, which emphasized the following immediate actions:

•  The poorest of the region must have access to modern energy services

•  It is essential that the region increase the efficiency of production, transport, storage and use of energy.

•  It is essential to develop and deploy new energy generation technologies with very substantially lower carbon emissions; this includes the use of carbon capture technologies.

•  It is vital to accelerate the development and deployment of environmentally-sound renewable sources (RSE) for energy production.

To achieve these goals, it is essential to develop public and political awareness of the importance of simultaneously lowering the energy intensity of human activity (LEI) and expanding renewable sources for the production of energy (RSE). This will require appropriate policies at all levels of society in order to engage the citizens of each country. For developing countries, it is important to have consistent and coherent national energy policies that take into account local circumstances within the volatile energy framework regionally and globally. To achieve this, every developing country should establish a national centre of energy economics and policy study that continually updated data and statistics on the national energy scene.

This must be a long-term, sustained effort, because the energy sector is characterized by its long lead times and the high costs of policy mistakes. This means that it is inherently conservative, with a high level of inertia. Governments must make energy efficiency and renewable energy a very high priority, and they must remain consistent in this regard for many years so that they give the energy sector clear signals as to the way forward.

The needs of different countries of the region, with very diverse levels of development, political governance, and energy resources, vary widely. Although some of the countries of the region already have energy policies, it is necessary to reassess these policies to ensure that they are adequate to deal with the profound energy challenges of our time.

In the short-term, government action can be severely constrained. For example, a government may not be able to wait for the best solution to become available, even one that is near-market, when there is an immediate risk of an energy crisis. However the design of a national roadmap towards developing a sustainable energy future, based on renewable and low-carbon sources of energy and energy efficiency and conservation, would help governments to overcome these limitations.

Sustained support for research and the development of markets for new electricity generation and storage technologies such as hydrogen, and for energy serives that encourage greater energy efficiency for end users (in sectors such as industry, buildings, and transport) will require significant shifts in policy, away from current energy use technologies that rely on hydrocarbons (coal, oil and gas). In each country these shifts will give rise to new local technological capacity, business opportunities and creation of jobs. Meeting energy needs is a multi-disciplinary challenge and requires a broad range of individual and institutional capacities with the participation of different sectors, while Government must lead and encourage this through the formulation of relevant laws, regulations, economic incentives and national targets.

Estimates suggest that about two-thirds of economically feasible hydro-generating capacity and almost ninety-nine percent of wind energy remains untapped and most of these resources are in low-income countries. Renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal are already developed in some countries of the region, which would facilitate transfer to countries that have the potential but lack the technology. The problem here is usually the lack of finance, management, and technical capacity. It is therefore important to look at models of public-private partnership that could help to overcome these obstacles. It is important that such plans are based on realistic assessments of both supply potential and demand.

In South America and the Caribbean (SAC) some ninety percent of the population are connected to the grid, but this average conceals a large disparity. In the main urban areas essentially the entire population is connected, but in rural areas less than two-thirds of the population has access to electricity. The cost to grid-connect those in rural areas is in many cases prohibitive. It is therefore vital to find creative and economically viable alternatives to grid supply for meeting the need for electricity and other forms of energy in rural areas. In some cases, it will also be necessary to do so in ways that are consistent with traditional cultural patterns of behaviour. Different business models and government policies must be devised for this purpose.

Governments also need to operate with multiple policy objectives. They might give a high priority, for example, to the creation of employment opportunities, especially in economically depressed areas. Thus, a more labour-intensive energy solution may be seen as preferable to a more technologically-intensive option, provided that the costs are comparable.

There are also cases where sub-optimal outcomes are actually the result of government policy. These include subsidies for fossil fuels, and the failure to reflect health and environmental costs in energy options. For example, the quickest and cheapest way to develop economically and environmentally-efficient supplies and infrastructure for biofuels might be to remove tariff barriers that keep competitive external suppliers out of local markets, rather than to subsidize inefficient domestic production.

The Academies of Science do not possess all the expertise required to solve these large and complex problems; part of the necessary knowledge and skill resides in the private sector, part in government. The Academies therefore need to become the hubs of networks, assembling, collating and analyzing information, and making coherent and balanced policy recommendations. The Academies also need to strengthen their understanding of the policy process, and of the social, political and economic factors that can constrain the choices available to governments.

A stronger role for the Academies of Science and the scientific community in policy decisions is therefore urgently needed. Governments need access to informed, impartial advice as to the costs and benefits of each policy option, and of the different kinds of risk that may be involved. Researchers, Scientists and Engineers have a special responsibility to assess the risks as well as benefits of the different technological directions.

Expanded use of nuclear power may be practical in some areas of the region. This depends on a high-quality culture of safety, solutions to the radioactive material disposal problem, and ways to address proliferation and security concerns. Nuclear energy, while requiring large initial investments, is competitive at current and expected oil and gas prices, helps to reduce CO2 emissions and may therefore provide the base-load capacity component of long-term energy security.

Research, development and deployment of energy systems can benefit greatly from cooperation among different countries. Capacity building is essential in such programs, with a particular focus on technicians, engineers and scientists at all different levels, as well as on the professionals and technicians in economics and other social sciences, in particular those working on energy systems and the development of the associated markets.

Brazil has a successful thirty-year history in manufacturing ethanol from sugar cane. The key factors were local and global S&T cooperation, governmental policies and the strong participation of the private sector in all phases of the S&T process; this combination has made ethanol a viable alternative to gasoline for cars in Brazil . The incorporation of S&T solutions in the processing of sugar cane created an environmentally friendly process that reduces carbon emissions and produces electricity. These results have been obtained using less than 2% of the available arable land, alleviating concerns about biofuel/food competition, as none is observable in Brazil . The lessons learned in this case can be transferred to other tropical countries with, of course, proper allowance for local technical, land, water, food, and societal differences. It was agreed that the production of ethanol from plants using first generation technologies (i.e., those that use sugars or starch as fermentable feedstock) is only recommended when the production costs, energy inputs, net emissions, and social impacts are favorable, and that it is important to encourage the development of second and third generation biofuel technologies.

The importance of cooperation in the areas of information, science and technology within South America, the Caribbean Region, the US , Canada and outside the region is already recognized. It is also clear that multilateral agencies, such as the OAS and international funding institutions such as the IADB and World Bank, play a vital role with regard to regional energy policies and practices.

There was consensus that the S&T community must contribute to capacity building at four different levels: (1) general public engagement, (2) school education, (3) university and other higher education to produce a new generation of engineers and scientists and (4) providing technical and analytical inputs to increase the national capacity to make well-informed energy policy decisions.

IANAS, through its members, and as an organization, has an important role to play in each of these important contributions of the S&T community.

Responding to this challenge, the workshop considered a number of cases in different countries in the region, including energy efficiency in Argentina and the challenge facing its future direction, the role of S&T in Canada , Jamaica 's proposed move into ethanol production, and the successful development of an ethanol industry in Brazil . These examples illustrated that it is very important for the S&T community to actively participate in the generation of a national vision in terms of possibilities and opportunities for pursuing a sustainable energy future. This must be based on a rigorous scientific analysis of the magnitude of the problem, the different components of the problem, and each of the possible solutions for each country.

Societal sustainability can only be reached with the use of RSE. It is essential that this be achieved at the highest possible level of economic efficiency and the lowest practicable level of environmental impact. This must form the basis of a national vision for clean, affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy.

Recommendations

•  IANAS should work with the S&T community of South America and the Caribbean Region through the Academies (and/or other representative institutions in countries that do not have Academies of Science) to provide the best available evidence-based advice to Government regarding energy policy;

•  Energy efficiency, from generation to final use, and the development and deployment of renewable and low-carbon energy sources must be the core aims of all future energy policy;

•  A technology roadmap of renewable energy technologies must become a key part of the development strategies in all countries of the region;

•  A vigorous capacity building program, addressing all levels of education, from primary school to advanced professional science and engineering focused on energy is urgently needed; this program should start immediately;

•  It is essential to engage citizens of each country in this transition. An energy information and consciousness-raising program is urgently needed.

•  Multilateral agencies, such as the OAS and organisms, such as the IADB and World Bank must intensify their focus on energy policies, technologies and practices.


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